Get Sql Server Error Number from Exception

In order to get the error number from a system.data.sqlclient.sqlexception, you’ll need to iterate through all the inner exceptions of the current $_ exception in your catch{} block:

cls
try
{
	Get-SqlData -sqlserver "YourServerName" -dbname master -qry "SELECT 0/0"
}
catch
{
	for($ex = $_.Exception; $ex -ne $null; $ex = $ex.InnerException)
	{
		$ex | fl -Force
	}
}

This will iterate through all the inner exceptions until there are no more.  I’ll leave it to you when to stop iterating through the inner exceptions.  In this case, the exception we are looking for is nested 4 innerexceptions in:

Errors         : {System.Data.SqlClient.SqlError: Divide by zero error encountered.}
Class          : 16
LineNumber     : 1
Number         : 8134
Procedure      : 
Server         : YourServerName
State          : 1
Source         : .Net SqlClient Data Provider
ErrorCode      : -2146232060
Message        : Divide by zero error encountered.
Data           : {HelpLink.ProdName, HelpLink.ProdVer, HelpLink.EvtSrc, HelpLink.EvtID...}
InnerException : 
TargetSite     : System.Object ExecuteTSql(ExecuteTSqlAction, System.Object, System.Data.DataSet, Boolean)
StackTrace     :    at Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ConnectionManager.ExecuteTSql(ExecuteTSqlAction action, Object execObject, DataSet fillDataSet, Boolean catchException)
                    at Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection.ExecuteWithResults(String sqlCommand)

Edit: 20130103: You could also use $_.Exception.GetBaseException() to retrieve the first exception as well.