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Posts from the ‘SQL Server’ Category

6
Apr

Read an Extended Events File via Powershell

Admittedly, I don’t know that much about this, I just started fooling around with this tonight (via this post).  As stated in said post, this works for only under x86 and AFAIK, needs at least Sql Server 2014 (I couldn’t find the required dll’s under sql 2012…).     Edit 20170410:  The 64 bit dll’s are located in ‘C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\120\Shared’ for sql server 2014.  I’m assuming they’re in the 130 directory for Sql Server 2016.

$path = '\\ServerName\C$\MSSQL\MSSQL11.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Log\AuditCapture_0_131300599577540000.xel'

#Add-Type -Path 'C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SQL Server\120\Tools\Binn\ManagementStudio\Extensions\Application\Microsoft.SqlServer.XE.Core.dll'
#Add-Type -Path 'C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SQL Server\120\Tools\Binn\ManagementStudio\Extensions\Application\Microsoft.SqlServer.XEvent.Linq.dll'
 
Add-Type -Path 'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\120\Shared\Microsoft.SqlServer.XE.Core.dll'
Add-Type -Path 'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\120\Shared\Microsoft.SqlServer.XEvent.Linq.dll'

$events = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.XEvent.Linq.QueryableXEventData($path)
$sb = New-Object System.Text.StringBuilder

$events | select -First 10 | %{
    $event = $_
    [void]$sb.Append("$($event.Timestamp);;");

    for($i=0;$i-lt($event.Fields.Count-1);$i++){  
        [void]$sb.Append("$($event.Fields[$i].Value.ToString().Replace("`r`n", ''));;");
    }
    
    $event.Actions | %{
        $action = $_
        [void]$sb.Append("$($action.value.ToString().Replace("`r`n", ''));;");
    }
    [void]$sb.Append("ServerName;;");

    [void]$sb.AppendLine();
}
$sb.ToString();
4
Apr

Restore Database with Move Files

More for me than you.  Something I type up all the time and forget where the heck I put it.  Not tested, but should give you the general idea.

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

$destServers = @('Server1', 'Server2', 'Server3')
$srcPath = "\\sharepath\Backups"

try{
    
    $destServers | %{
        $serverName = $_ 

        $srv = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server "$serverName,1433"

        gci -Path $srcPath | ?{$_.Extension -eq '.bak'} | %{
            $dbName = $_.BaseName 
            $backupFile = $_.FullName

            $backupDevice = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.BackupDeviceItem ($backupFile, [Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.DeviceType]::File)
        
            $restore = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Restore
            $restore.Devices.Add($backupDevice);
            $restore.NoRecovery = $true;
            $restore.ReplaceDatabase = $true
            $restore.Database = $dbName

            $backup = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.BackupDeviceItem ($backupFile, [Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.DeviceType]::File)
            $restore = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Restore
            $restore.Devices.Add($backup);
            $dbFiles = $restore.ReadFileList($srv);
            $moveFiles = @();
            foreach($dbFile in $dbFiles){
                $fileName = [System.IO.Path]::GetFileName($dbFile.PhysicalName);
                switch($dbFile.Type){
                    'D'{
                        $moveFiles += New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.RelocateFile($dbFile.LogicalName, "E:\MSSQL\Data\$fileName")
                    }
                    'L'{
                        $moveFiles += New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.RelocateFile($dbFile.LogicalName, "G:\MSSQL\TranLog\$fileName")
                    }
                }
            }

            $srv.ConnectionContext.StatementTimeout = 0;
            restore-sqldatabase -InputObject $srv -Database $dbName -BackupFile $backupFile -RelocateFile $moveFiles -ReplaceDatabase
        }
    }

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}
26
Oct

BCP via Powershell

Quick post on how to use BCP with powershell.  Adjust options to suit your needs.

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

$query = "SELECT * FROM TABLE"

try{

 $srcConn = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection("PersistSecurityInfo = true;Server=Server1;Database=DBName;Integrated Security=True;Application Name=PowerShell_BCP");
 $destConn = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection("PersistSecurityInfo = true;Server=Server2;Database=DBName;Integrated Security=True;Application Name=PowerShell_BCP");

 $srcCommand = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand($query, $srcConn);
 $destBulk = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlBulkCopy($destConn);
 $destBulk.BulkCopyTimeout = 0;
 $destBulk.BatchSize = 1000
 $destBulk.DestinationTableName = 'DestTable'

 $srcConn.Open();
 $destConn.Open();

 $results = $srcCommand.ExecuteReader();
 $destBulk.WriteToServer($results);

 $srcConn.Close();
 $destConn.Close();

}
catch{
 $_ | fl -Force
}
10
Jul

31 Posts of using Sql Server with Powershell — Post 4: Server Object

For the 4th post, we’re going to get go into managing Sql Server itself rather than the data.  For that, we’re going to need a new object, the Server object.  In this example, we’re using the ServerConnection object to connect to the Server object.  We then go through all the databases on the server and print out the name of the databases:

Push-Location
Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

try{

    $srvConn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection 'bacon'
    $Server = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $srvConn

    foreach($database in $Server.Databases){
        $database.Name
    }

    $srvConn.Disconnect();

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}
finally{
    $srvConn.Disconnect();
}

Pop-Location

Lets step it up a bit and work on more than one server at a time.  Create a text file named Servers.txt and put it on the root of your c:\ drive.  In said file, put the name of a few servers that you want to query:

image

If you don’t have more than one server, just go into your ConfigurationManager in windows and add a few alias’ in that point to your local instance (that’s what I did…).  Make sure to add them to both the 32-bit and 64-bit Sql Native Client alias’.

image

So, let’s iterate through all databases on all our servers:

Push-Location
Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

try{

    get-content -Path C:\Servers.txt | %{
        $srvConn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection $_
        $Server = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $srvConn

        Write-Host $_ -ForegroundColor Red

        foreach($database in $Server.Databases | where{!$_.IsSystemObject}){
            "Database name is:  $($database.Name)";
        }

        $srvConn.Disconnect();
    }

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}
finally{
    $srvConn.Disconnect();
}

Pop-Location

The ‘%’ is an alias for ‘foreach-object’ for the list of servers in the text file.  The ‘$_’ is just a reference to the current item in the list of servers in the text file.

  • Use Get-Content to retrieve the contents of our c:\Servers.txt file.
  • Iterate through the servers in the file, each time changing the server name ($_) in the ServerConnection object.
  • Filter using the where-object to only show non-system databases (where{!$_.IsSystemObject})

The $database.name is surrounded by $() so it can evaluate the database name.  If it weren’t there, the string would print out the database name with .Name after it, as shown below:

image

Even though I’m using a ServerConnection object to connect via the Server object, you don’t have to do this.  You can just as easily pass the servername string into the Server object and it will work just fine.

$Server = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.smo.Server 'bacon'

So, the server object is the object you’ll most likely be using the most when administering the server.  Under the server object, you’ll find logins, databases, server roles, the sql agent job server, etc…

In upcoming posts, we’ll go through examples of adminstering the most common objects  that hang off the Server object.

9
Jul

31 Posts of using Sql Server with Powershell — Post 3: Retrieving Data

For the 3rd post, we’re going to look at retrieving data from Sql Server.  It’s not much more complicated than the second post, but it does involve some new objects.

On the last post, we finished off with inserting some data into the database using a ServerConnection object.  Now, we’re going to execute a query to get that data back out.  When you call the ExecuteReader method of the ServerConnection object and pass it in a SELECT statement, it will return you a SqlDataReader object:

Push-Location
Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

try{

    $srvConn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection 'bacon'
    $srvConn.Connect();

    $sdr = $srvConn.ExecuteReader("SELECT TOP 5 * FROM dbo.Test")
    while($sdr.Read()){
        $sdr.GetInt32(0)
        $sdr.GetString(1)
    }
}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}
finally{
    $srvConn.Disconnect();
}

Pop-Location

This does a while loop on the SqlDataReaders’ Read() method, which will return $true as long as there are records to be read.

image

While using the SqlDataReader is fast and efficient, it’s not the most user-friendly object to use for reading data in powershell.  For ease of use, you can’t beat a DataTable.

Push-Location
Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

try{

    $srvConn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection 'bacon'
    $dataTable = New-Object System.Data.DataTable
    $srvConn.Connect();

    $sdr = $srvConn.ExecuteReader("SELECT TOP 5 * FROM dbo.Test")
    $dataTable.Load($sdr);
    $dataTable | ft -AutoSize

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}
finally{
    $srvConn.Disconnect();
}

Pop-Location

In this code, we’re still executing the same statement and loading the SqlDataReader object, but then we create a new System.Data.Datatable object and call the Load method on the DataTable and pass in the SqlDataReader.  This object is probably the easiest object to work with for reading data from Sql Server with powershell.  Here’s another example using a DataTable to export data to a csv file:

Push-Location
Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

try{

    $srvConn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection 'bacon'
    $dataTable = New-Object System.Data.DataTable
    $srvConn.Connect();

    $sdr = $srvConn.ExecuteReader("SELECT TOP 5 * FROM dbo.Test")
    $dataTable.Load($sdr);
    $dataTable | Export-Csv -Path "$env:windir\temp\TestCSV1.csv" -Force -NoTypeInformation

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}
finally{
    $srvConn.Disconnect();
}

Pop-Location

The –Force will overwrite the file if it already exists.  The –NoTypeInformation does what it says, it omits type information from the file.  If you don’t specify this, you’ll see extra type information output into the csv file that you probably don’t want.

You can also filter on the values in the DataTable via the where-object clause in powershell as well:

Push-Location
Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

try{

    $srvConn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection 'bacon'
    $dataTable = New-Object System.Data.DataTable
    $srvConn.Connect();

    $sdr = $srvConn.ExecuteReader("SELECT TOP 5 * FROM dbo.Test")
    $dataTable.Load($sdr);
    $dataTable | where{$_.ID -gt 3} | %{
        $_
    }

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}
finally{
    $srvConn.Disconnect();
}

Pop-Location
7
Jul

31 Posts of using Sql Server with Powershell: Modules

This isn’t a 31 days series, as I’ll undoubtedly miss a day here and there, so instead, this will just be a ’31 posts’ series instead.  I’m pragmatic.  And lazy.

I have noticed there is a bit of discomfort amongst most database administrators when it comes to dealing with powershell.  Do yourself a favor and learn it.  You’ll wonder how you ever got by without it before.

So here we go with post 1.

Importing Sql Server Cmdlets

In order to begin this series, you’ll need to import the sql server cmdlets that will enable you to work with the smo objects that you’ll use to work with sql server.  If you have sql server management studio 12 and above, you’re in luck.  All you need to do to import the sql server cmdlets is this:

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking;

The –DisableNameChecking is optional, but if omitted you’ll get a warning that some of the verbs in the cmdlets are unapproved:

warning

A word of warning; this module loads extremely slow.  This has been fixed in Sql Server 2016, but as noted in the closing notes of this post, that requires that SSMS for Sql Server 2016 be installed.

If you’ve got Sql Server 2008 R2 and below, you’ll need to install a few things in order to get the sql server cmdlets working correctly.  More or less, the SqlPS module requires the use of Sql Server 2012 Shared Management Objects, so you’ll need to download 3 components from the Sql Server 2012 (or 2014) feature pack:

First, you’ll need download and install the SystemCLR Types for Sql Server 2012/14:

image

Next, you’ll need to download and install the Sql Server Shared Management objects:

image

And finally, download and install the Windows Powershell Extensions for Sql Server:

image

Once you have all three of these installed and restart your powershell environment, you should be able to run the Import-Module SqlPS command correctly.

Okay, post 1 complete.  Sort of.  As of Sql Server 2016, the SqlPS module is being replaced by a new SqlServer module, but that requires that the Sql Server 2016 SSMS must be installed to use it (at the time of this writing), so we’re just going to plod along using SqlPS for now.  Most of the functionality provided in the SqlServer module will still work.

7
Jul

Change Sql Server Configuration Manager IP Address

To change the IP address in sql servers’ configuration manager, you can use the following code.  Of note, when I changed the IP address in configuration manager under IP1 manually and tested connections, it really didn’t make a lick of difference.  I could connect whether or not the IP1 value reflected the correct IP address or not.  But, having a different IP listed in the configuration manager as opposed to what it really is just feels dishonest.

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking
[System.Reflection.Assembly]::LoadWithPartialName("Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlWmiManagement") | out-null
cls

try{

    $srvName = "servername"
    $Instance = "mssqlserver"
    $urn = "ManagedComputer[@Name='$srvName']/ServerInstance[@Name='$Instance']/ServerProtocol[@Name='Tcp']"

    $wmi = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Wmi.ManagedComputer $srvName
    $tcp = $wmi.GetSmoObject($urn);
    $tcp.IPAddresses["IP1"].IPAddressProperties["IpAddress"].Value = '10.10.1.1';
    $tcp.Alter();

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}
5
Jul

Powershell & Sql Server Single User Mode

Sometimes (nigh, always) when you have to start a sql server in single user mode (the ‘/m’ after the net start…), executing queries in the sqlcmd prompt can be a bit of a painful endeavor.  What I usually do is use powershell to stop the service, then restart the service in single-user mode and grab a serverconnection to it immediately in powershell_ise:

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking
cls

Stop-Service -Name "MSSQL`$SQL2012" -Force
net start "MSSQL`$SQL2012" /m
$sqlcmd = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection '.\sql2012'
$sqlcmd.Connect();

I can then reference the $sqlcmd object in other tabs in powershell_ise to work in a more pleasant environment:

sqlcmd

Notice, I can’t connect in SSMS:

ssms

Just a helpful tip.

5
Jul

Synchronize Sql Users and Logins with Powershell

I have a previous post about syncing users and logins via powershell, but seeing as that one uses the soon to be deprecated (if not already…no listing for this proc for sql server 2014 on MSDN…) ‘sp_change_users_login’, I thought I’d re-do it to be current.  Use at your own risk.

Keep in mind, a database login can indeed be set to use a different server login, so just bear that in mind if you find this not syncing all of them.  I don’t do that (and can’t imagine why anyone would want to make their lives more complicated by doing so….), so I’ve not coded for that scenario.  This also looks for system logins with ‘##’ at the beginning and just skips those.

#requires -module SqlPS

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

$serverName = 'ServerName'

try{

    $srv = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $serverName
    $logins = $srv.Logins | where{$_.LoginType -eq [Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.LoginType]::SqlLogin} | select -ExpandProperty Name
    $srv.Databases | %{
        $dbName = $_.Name
        $sb = New-Object System.Text.StringBuilder
        $_.Users | where{$_.Name -in $logins} | %{
            if($_.Name -like '##*'){return};
            $sb.AppendLine("ALTER USER $($_.Name) WITH LOGIN = $($_.Name);") | Out-Null
        }
        $_.ExecuteNonQuery($sb.ToString());
    }
}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}
5
Jul

Timeouts in SqlPS Backup-SqlDatabase & Restore-SqlDatabase

Often when backing up a big database using SqlPS’s Backup-SqlDatabase cmdlet you’ll find yourself hitting a timeout after 600 seconds (10 minutes).  In order to alleviate this, you’ll need to pass in an SMO Server object to the Backup-SqlDatabase instead of defining the –ServerInstance:

try{

    $srv = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server "MyServerName"
    $srv.ConnectionContext.StatementTimeout = 0
    Backup-SqlDatabase -InputObject $srv -Database "MyBigDatabase" -BackupAction Database -BackupFile "f:\Backups\MyBigDatabase.bak" -CopyOnly -CompressionOption On 

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}

The same trick *should* work (as I’ve not tried it yet) via the Restore-SqlDatabase, as it also takes an –InputObject of type smo server as well.  This was supposedly fixed in Sql Server 2012 SP2, but if you have just the SqlCLR, SharedManagement, & PowerShell tools installed installed sans sql server, it can be an un-necessary pain to have to apply a service pack just to fix this issue.