Sql Server Powershell

31 Posts of using Sql Server with Powershell: Modules

This isn’t a 31 days series, as I’ll undoubtedly miss a day here and there, so instead, this will just be a ’31 posts’ series instead.  I’m pragmatic.  And lazy.

I have noticed there is a bit of discomfort amongst most database administrators when it comes to dealing with powershell.  Do yourself a favor and learn it.  You’ll wonder how you ever got by without it before.

So here we go with post 1.

Importing Sql Server Cmdlets

In order to begin this series, you’ll need to import the sql server cmdlets that will enable you to work with the smo objects that you’ll use to work with sql server.  If you have sql server management studio 12 and above, you’re in luck.  All you need to do to import the sql server cmdlets is this:

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking;

The –DisableNameChecking is optional, but if omitted you’ll get a warning that some of the verbs in the cmdlets are unapproved:

warning

A word of warning; this module loads extremely slow.  This has been fixed in Sql Server 2016, but as noted in the closing notes of this post, that requires that SSMS for Sql Server 2016 be installed.

If you’ve got Sql Server 2008 R2 and below, you’ll need to install a few things in order to get the sql server cmdlets working correctly.  More or less, the SqlPS module requires the use of Sql Server 2012 Shared Management Objects, so you’ll need to download 3 components from the Sql Server 2012 (or 2014) feature pack:

First, you’ll need download and install the SystemCLR Types for Sql Server 2012/14:

image

Next, you’ll need to download and install the Sql Server Shared Management objects:

image

And finally, download and install the Windows Powershell Extensions for Sql Server:

image

Once you have all three of these installed and restart your powershell environment, you should be able to run the Import-Module SqlPS command correctly.

Okay, post 1 complete.  Sort of.  As of Sql Server 2016, the SqlPS module is being replaced by a new SqlServer module, but that requires that the Sql Server 2016 SSMS must be installed to use it (at the time of this writing), so we’re just going to plod along using SqlPS for now.  Most of the functionality provided in the SqlServer module will still work.

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Change Sql Server Configuration Manager IP Address

To change the IP address in sql servers’ configuration manager, you can use the following code.  Of note, when I changed the IP address in configuration manager under IP1 manually and tested connections, it really didn’t make a lick of difference.  I could connect whether or not the IP1 value reflected the correct IP address or not.  But, having a different IP listed in the configuration manager as opposed to what it really is just feels dishonest.

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking
[System.Reflection.Assembly]::LoadWithPartialName("Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlWmiManagement") | out-null
cls

try{

    $srvName = "servername"
    $Instance = "mssqlserver"
    $urn = "ManagedComputer[@Name='$srvName']/ServerInstance[@Name='$Instance']/ServerProtocol[@Name='Tcp']"

    $wmi = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Wmi.ManagedComputer $srvName
    $tcp = $wmi.GetSmoObject($urn);
    $tcp.IPAddresses["IP1"].IPAddressProperties["IpAddress"].Value = '10.10.1.1';
    $tcp.Alter();

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}

Powershell & Sql Server Single User Mode

Sometimes (nigh, always) when you have to start a sql server in single user mode (the ‘/m’ after the net start…), executing queries in the sqlcmd prompt can be a bit of a painful endeavor.  What I usually do is use powershell to stop the service, then restart the service in single-user mode and grab a serverconnection to it immediately in powershell_ise:

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking
cls

Stop-Service -Name "MSSQL`$SQL2012" -Force
net start "MSSQL`$SQL2012" /m
$sqlcmd = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection '.\sql2012'
$sqlcmd.Connect();

I can then reference the $sqlcmd object in other tabs in powershell_ise to work in a more pleasant environment:

sqlcmd

Notice, I can’t connect in SSMS:

ssms

Just a helpful tip.

Synchronize Sql Users and Logins with Powershell

I have a previous post about syncing users and logins via powershell, but seeing as that one uses the soon to be deprecated (if not already…no listing for this proc for sql server 2014 on MSDN…) ‘sp_change_users_login’, I thought I’d re-do it to be current.  Use at your own risk.

Keep in mind, a database login can indeed be set to use a different server login, so just bear that in mind if you find this not syncing all of them.  I don’t do that (and can’t imagine why anyone would want to make their lives more complicated by doing so….), so I’ve not coded for that scenario.  This also looks for system logins with ‘##’ at the beginning and just skips those.

#requires -module SqlPS

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

$serverName = 'ServerName'

try{

    $srv = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $serverName
    $logins = $srv.Logins | where{$_.LoginType -eq [Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.LoginType]::SqlLogin} | select -ExpandProperty Name
    $srv.Databases | %{
        $dbName = $_.Name
        $sb = New-Object System.Text.StringBuilder
        $_.Users | where{$_.Name -in $logins} | %{
            if($_.Name -like '##*'){return};
            $sb.AppendLine("ALTER USER $($_.Name) WITH LOGIN = $($_.Name);") | Out-Null
        }
        $_.ExecuteNonQuery($sb.ToString());
    }
}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}

Copy a Sql Server job via Powershell

This function will copy a job from one server to another using powershell. 

function Copy-SqlJob{
    [cmdletbinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        $ComputerName,
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        $Destination,
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        $JobName
    )
    begin{
        Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking
    }
    process{

        if($PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($ComputerName)){

            $srv = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $Destination
            $job = $srv.JobServer.Jobs | where{$_.name -eq $JobName}
            if($job -ne $null){
                throw "Job $JobName already exist on server $Destination"
            }

            $srv = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $Destination
            if($srv.JobServer.Jobs | where{$_.Name -eq $JobName}){
                throw "Job $JobName already exists on server $Destination"
                return;
            }

	        $srv = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $ComputerName
	        $scriptr = new-object ('Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Scripter') ($srv)
	        $scriptr.Options.DriAll = $True
	        $scriptr.Options.IncludeHeaders = $True

            $job = $srv.JobServer.jobs | where{$_.Name -eq $JobName} 
            if($job -eq $null){
                throw "Job $JobName was not found on server $ComputerName."
                return;
            }
            $strJob = $scriptr.Script($job) | Out-String
        
            Invoke-Sqlcmd -ServerInstance $Destination -Database 'msdb' -Query $strJob
        }
        else{
            Write-Host "Copying Sql Job $JobName from $ComputerName to $Destination"
        }
    }
    end{

    }
}

Get-AdUser Group Membership

Quick snippit to grab a users’ group membership:

Get-ADUser -filter{samaccountname -eq 'snewman'} -Properties MemberOf | select -ExpandProperty MemberOf | %{$_.ToString().Split(',')[0].Replace('CN=', '');}

Timeouts in SqlPS Backup-SqlDatabase & Restore-SqlDatabase

Often when backing up a big database using SqlPS’s Backup-SqlDatabase cmdlet you’ll find yourself hitting a timeout after 600 seconds (10 minutes).  In order to alleviate this, you’ll need to pass in an SMO Server object to the Backup-SqlDatabase instead of defining the –ServerInstance:

try{

    $srv = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server "MyServerName"
    $srv.ConnectionContext.StatementTimeout = 0
    Backup-SqlDatabase -InputObject $srv -Database "MyBigDatabase" -BackupAction Database -BackupFile "f:\Backups\MyBigDatabase.bak" -CopyOnly -CompressionOption On 

}
catch{
    $_ | fl -Force
}

The same trick *should* work (as I’ve not tried it yet) via the Restore-SqlDatabase, as it also takes an –InputObject of type smo server as well.  This was supposedly fixed in Sql Server 2012 SP2, but if you have just the SqlCLR, SharedManagement, & PowerShell tools installed installed sans sql server, it can be an un-necessary pain to have to apply a service pack just to fix this issue.

Call RoboCopy via Powershell

Just a quick function I knocked up to copy files via RoboCopy in powershell.  If the destination directory does not exist, the function will create it.  Use at your own risk.

function Copy-RoboCopy{
    [cmdletbinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory)]
        [ValidateScript({[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($_);})]
        [string]$SourceDir,
        [Parameter(Mandatory)]
        [string]$Destination
    )
    begin{

    }
    process{

        if(!(Test-Path $Destination -PathType Container)){
            New-Item -ItemType Directory -Path $Destination -Force
        }

        if(!(test-path -Path "C:\Windows\System32\robocopy.exe" -PathType Leaf)){
            throw "Robocopy is not installed."
        }

        robocopy "$SourceDir" "$Destination" *.* /S /MT:32 /XJ /R:25 /W:5 /NP /XX 

    }
    end{

    }
    
}

NetBackup BPList via Powershell

Quick post on how to get netbackup information back using BPList and splitting the image information to powershell objects.  You can get more information from BPList using the –l argument such as size, account, etc… but I’ve just not coded that up yet.  The parameters for this default to the last 24 hours.  Use at your own risk.

function Get-SqlNetBackups{
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true, ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        [string]$ServerName,
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false, ValueFromPipeline=$false)]
        [DateTime]$Start = (get-date).AddDays(-1),
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false, ValueFromPipeline=$false)]
        [DateTime]$End = (Get-Date)
    )

    #HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\VERITAS\NetBackup\CurrentVersion
    $installDir = Get-ItemProperty "HKLM:\SOFTWARE\VERITAS\NetBackup\CurrentVersion" | select -expandproperty INSTALLDIR
    if($installDir -eq $null){
        throw "Netbackup is not installed."
    }

    $bpList = "$installDir\NetBackup\bin\bplist.exe"
    if(!(Test-Path $bpList -PathType Leaf)){
        throw "BPList was not found at $bpList.  This cmdlet uses (abuses) BPList to "
    }
    #Push-Location
    sl "$([System.IO.Path]::GetDirectoryName($bpList))"
    $objects = @();

    try{

        $fStart = $Start.ToString("MM/dd/yyyy")
        $fEnd = $End.ToString("MM/dd/yyyy")
        $type = ""

        $ErrorActionPreference = "stop";
        <#
            -l to show file details, the following is the format with -l.  We can get the size and account, which is nice. When I find the time I'll implement...
            -rw------- SQLAcctSe SQLAcctSe     2949120 Mar 02 00:04 SEAPR1DB0051.MSSQL7.SEAPR1DB0051.trx.p0013510cd7b_620.~.7.001of001.20160302000354..C:\
            -rw------- SQLAcctSe SQLAcctSe           0 Mar 02 00:04 SEAPR1DB0051.MSSQL7.SEAPR1DB0051.trx.p0013510cd7b_620.~.7.001of001.20160302000354..C:\
            -rw------- SQLAcctSe SQLAcctSe           0 Mar 02 00:04 SEAPR1DB0051.MSSQL7.SEAPR1DB0051.trx.p0013510cd7b_620.~.7.001of001.20160302000354..C:\
            -rw------- SQLAcctSe SQLAcctSe           0 Mar 02 00:04 SEAPR1DB0051.MSSQL7.SEAPR1DB0051.trx.p0013510cd7b_620.~.7.001of001.20160302000354..C:\
            -rw------- SQLAcctSe SQLAcctSe           0 Mar 02 00:04 SEAPR1DB0051.MSSQL7.SEAPR1DB0051.trx.p0013510cd7b_620.~.7.001of001.20160302000354..C:\
        #>
        $list = .\bplist -C $ServerName -t 15 -S seaveritas247 -s $fStart -e $fEnd -R \      

        $fmtString = "yyyyMMddHHmmss"
          
        $list -split "`r`n" | select -Unique | %{

            $backupType = ""
            $arr = $_.Split(".");  #the image string...

            switch($arr[3]){  #0-based, so 4th item 1-based...used to tell the backup type...
                "db"{
                    $backupType = "Full"
                }
                "trx"{
                    $backupType = "TranLog"
                }
                "inc"{
                    $backupType = "Diff"
                }
                default{
                    $backupType = "Other"
                }
            }

            $objects += [PSCustomObject]@{
                ServerName = $arr[0]
                DatabaseName = $arr[4] 
                Date = [DateTime]::ParseExact($arr[8], $fmtString, $null)
                Type = $backupType
                Image = $_
            } 
    
        }

        $objects; 
    }
    catch{
        $_ | fl -Force
    }
}

Powershell Central Management Server Recursive Server List

I had a need to recursively iterate my Central Management Server, yet always return the topmost GroupName.  The function takes an array of strings to return that correlate to the names of the first level groups.  Use at your own risk.

#requires -Module SqlPS 
#requires -Version 5

Import-Module SqlPS -DisableNameChecking

function Get-CMSServers{
    param(
        [string[]]$CMSGroup = @('Group1', 'Group2')  #default groups...
    )

    function Get-RegisteredServers{  
        param(
            $ServerGroup,
            $ParentGroup
        )

        $ServerGroup.RegisteredServers | %{
            $objects.Add([PSCustomObject]@{
                ServerName = $_.ServerName
                GroupName = $ParentGroup 
                GroupDescription = $_.Description 
                ParentName = $ServerGroup.Name
            }) | Out-Null
        }

        if($ServerGroup.ServerGroups.Count -gt 0){
            $ServerGroup.ServerGroups | %{
                Get-RegisteredServers -ServerGroup $_ -ParentGroup $ParentGroup
            }
        }
    }

    $objects = New-Object System.Collections.ArrayList
    Set-Variable -Name objects -Option AllScope

    try{

        $srvConn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection &quot;ServerName&quot;
        $ServerStore = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.RegisteredServers.RegisteredServersStore $srvConn
        $ServerStore.DatabaseEngineServerGroup.ServerGroups | where{$_.Name -in $CMSGroup} | %{
            Get-RegisteredServers -ServerGroup $_ -ParentGroup $_.Name 
        }

        return $objects;
    }
    catch{
        $_ | fl -Force
    }
    finally{
        $srvConn.Disconnect();
    }

}

Get-CMSServers -CMSGroup @('Production', 'Reporting')